Axle Assembly

Axle assemly is a finished trailer parts , it can be installed into the trailer directly . An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to the vehicle, with the wheels rotating around the axle.[1]...

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Axle assemly is a finished trailer parts , it can be installed into the trailer directly .

An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to the vehicle, with the wheels rotating around the  axle.[1] In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle is supported. In the latter case, a bearing or bushing sits inside a central hole in the wheel to allow  the wheel or gear to rotate around the axle. Sometimes, especially on bicycles, the latter type axle is referred to as a spindle.

Full-floating vs semi-floating[edit]

A full-floating axle carries the vehicle's weight on the axle casing, not the halfshafts; they serve only to transmit torque from the differential  to the wheels. They "float" inside an assembly that carries the vehicle's weight. Thus the only stress it must endure is torque (not lateral bending force). Full-floating axle shafts are retained by a flange bolted  to the hub, while the hub and bearings are retained on the spindle by a large nut. In contrast, a semi-floating design carries the weight of the vehicle on the axle shaft itself; there is a single bearing at the end of the  axle housing that carries the load from the axle and that the axle rotates through.

The full-floating design is typically used in most 3/4- and 1-ton light trucks, medium duty trucks and heavy-duty trucks, as well as most agricultural  applications, such as large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery. There are a few exceptions, such as many Land-Rover vehicles and in American stock car racing since the early 1960s. The overall assembly can  carry more weight than a semi-floating or non-floating axle assembly, because the hubs have two bearings riding on a fixed spindle. A full-floating axle can be identified by a protruding hub to which the axle shaft flange  is bolted.

The semi-floating axle setup is commonly used on half-ton and lighter 4x4 trucks in the rear. This setup allows the axle shaft to be the means  of propulsion, and also support the weight of the vehicle[4]. The main difference between the full- and semi-floating axle setups is the number of bearings. The semi-floating axle features only one bearing, while the  full-floating assembly has bearings in both wheel hubs. The other difference is about the axle removal. To remove the semi-floating axle, one has to remove a wheel first. And, if such axle breaks, the wheel is most likely  to come off the vehicle. The semi-floating design is found under most 1/2-ton and lighter trucks and SUVs and rear-wheel-drive passenger cars, usually being smaller or less expensive models.

A benefit of a full-floating axle is that even if an axle shaft (used to transmit torque or power) breaks, the wheel will not come off, preventing  serious accidents.

Structural features and design[edit]


0 Series Shinkansen wheel used on Japanese high-speed bullet trains

A straight axle is a single rigid shaft connecting a wheel on the left side of the vehicle to a wheel on the right side. The axis of rotation  fixed by the axle is common to both wheels. Such a design can keep the wheel positions steady under heavy stress, and can therefore support heavy loads. Straight axles are used on trains (that is, locomotives and railway wagons),  for the rear axles of commercial trucks, and on heavy duty off-road vehicles. The axle can optionally be protected and further reinforced by enclosing the length of the axle in a housing.

In split-axle designs, the wheel on each side is attached to a separate shaft. Modern passenger cars have split drive axles. In some designs,  this allows independent suspension of the left and right wheels, and therefore a smoother ride. Even when the suspension is not independent, split axles permit the use of a differential, allowing the left and right drive wheels  to be driven at different speeds as the automobile turns, improving traction and extending tire life.

A tandem axle is a group of two or more axles situated close together. Truck designs use such a configuration to provide a greater weight capacity  than a single axle. Semi trailers usually have a tandem axle at the rear.

Axles are typically made from SAE grade 41xx steel or SAE grade 10xx steel. SAE grade 41xx steel is commonly known as "chrome-molybdenum steel" (or "chrome-moly") while SAE grade 10xx steel is known as "carbon steel". The primary differences between the two are that chrome-moly steel is significantly more resistant to bending or breaking, and is very difficult to  weld with tools normally found outside a professional welding shop.

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